Content of this article:
What are country pools?
Pool to give
Types of pools found in summer cottages:
- from scrap materials;
- from wood and film;
- from polypropylene;
- from cinder blocks;
- from concrete;
- from composite plastic.
Which of these types to choose depends on the taste preferences of the owner, his experience with the materials used. The depth of the dacha artificial reservoir for adults usually does not exceed 1.5 m, and for bathing children - 0.5 m.
The best medicine on a hot day
If the suburban area has a slope, the pool is better to install at its highest point. Location should not be in the vicinity of trees and shrubs.
With a buried stationary version, the root system can damage the integrity of the structure and break its waterproofing and tightness.It is better to orient the artificial reservoir along the prevailing wind direction on the ground. Such an arrangement will prevent dry leaves, grass and dust from entering the water.
During the construction of the pool at the dacha provide stairs, gangways and ladders. They will provide safe entry and exit from an artificial reservoir from the outside and inside.Additional attention should be paid to the system of filling the pool with water and emptying it. Usually in large artificial reservoirs automatic cleaning is used, when water is passed through a closed cycle through a filter system. This allows for a long time not to change the water.
For giving the small pool will approach
If engineering communications are connected to the summer cottage - water supply and sewage, you can use this happy circumstance. However, a direct connection will require a project and permission of the resource-supplying organizations. Unauthorized connection to these networks is unacceptable and can be punished with a large fine.
For power supply of pumps, filters, devices for heating water and for lighting in the evening or at night - it is necessary to provide a power supply system.BoardConnecting electrical equipment is better to instruct professionals. This will protect against accidental electric shock, both during connection and during operation of the pool.
Creative and comfortable modelreturn to menu ↑
Carcass pools include structures made from, installed with a certain pitch, vertical posts and horizontal tie bars. They can be stationary and collapsible, that is, those that can be dismantled at any time or moved to another place.Vertical racks of stationary pools are rigidly pinched into the ground. At the same time, either open-hole pits or drilled wells are used. Racks can be in the form of metal pipes or rolled - channel, angle, I-beam, concrete - round or rectangular section, wooden - in the form of logs or timber.
Jamming is performed using a concrete or cement-sand mortar. Wooden elements before use should be treated with means that prevent rotting, fungal damage and protect against insects that feed on wood. To reduce the flexibility of the racks when filling an artificial reservoir with a height of more than 50 cm arrange struts.
Can be stationary and collapsible.
Horizontal strips are attached to the racks with bolts or self-tapping screws, creating either a solid shield or sparse if longitudinal gaps are left between the boards to save materials (in this case the tensile strength of the film used is taken into account). Most often, the horizontal slats are made of wooden edged boards.
In the simplest case, the inner bowl is lined with polypropylene or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film. There are films produced specifically for swimming pools that have a rich blue color. In a more expensive version, for long-term stationary operation, sheet propylene is used, the seams of which are welded with a conventional construction dryer. Exterior finishes can also be made with plastic sheeting or plastic siding, which, for decorative purposes, has been painted with a pattern or color.
If a stationary outdoor pool is arranged, protection of its bowl in the cold season against precipitation in the form of rain and snow, as well as dirt and dust caused by the wind should be provided for. So preparation for the start of operation will be minimized. As such protection, you can use a set of several wooden shields that completely overlap the pool bowl with a polyethylene or polypropylene film laid on top of them.
The indoor pool at the cottage has many advantages compared to the open. The main thing is that you can go swimming at any time of the year. To do this, it must be equipped with a heating and air conditioning system. Indoor artificial pond is hygienic - there will be no dust, precipitation, dry leaves, other foreign objects. It is possible to change the water less often.
This option has many advantages.
Structurally, the pool cover is performed in various ways. It can be a separate building or an extension to the main house. Its manufacture is similar to the construction of a one-story building with a basement, based on strip foundations.
The difference is that in the overlap of the first floor there is a cutout under the pool basin, and it itself is located in the basement of the building or extension.Finishing of such a pool and its enclosing structures is usually done with ceramic tiles, recreational areas are created, and sometimes a room is allocated for a bath or sauna.
You can go swimming at any time of the year.Another option is a lightweight construction of a metal (usually aluminum) profile, which is either covered with panels of transparent fiberglass or covered with PVC film.
As racks and upper belts of arches or trusses, pipes, including plastic, used for plumbing, metal profiles can be used, except for the most common rolled products, box-shaped or “C” -shaped sections are allowed.
Horizontal and cross connections for stiffness are made in the form of metal or plastic strips.First, an outdoor pool is set up, then a protecting structure is mounted around it. To prevent the collapse of such a structure from the loads acting on it, before its manufacture, it is better to perform a calculation of the carrying capacity.
Stylish version of the open design with sauna
Structurally, the light construction above the pool can have a gable configuration with a pediment, hip, round - in the form of a tent or yurt, arched or semi-arched system. Side rails can be:
In some cases, arranged only cover in the form of a canopy or awning that protects against weathering in the form of rain or direct sunlight.return to menu ↑
From scrap materials
This type of pool is very simple, and so, for which it will take a lot of time and effort.
The fastest and easiest way is to make a pool, having adapted for this purpose any ready-made tank already having a bottom and walls. It can be old cast-iron baths, metal containers with an open top. They can be arranged as recessed into the ground, and set directly on the ground. Filling of pools of this type with water is carried out with the help of a hose, and draining - by manual scooping or using a hand pump.
From railway metal containers
Sometimes as artificial reservoirs use tires of huge wheels of transport of the big loading capacity which have fulfilled the term use.These pools are arranged on a concrete base, recessed into the ground at its own thickness (for the open version), or the height of the tire is added to it - for the option that provides for full penetration into the ground.
After installation, this pool can be painted or trimmed in a variety of ways. It is very well suited for children's games and entertainment.
There are swimming pools made of railway metal containers, with the upper part cut off to the required height. Such pools can be fully or partially buried in the ground or simply installed on a planned ground area.For use along the walls and the bottom of the pool, waterproofing is arranged on the inside, and they themselves are decorated with either ceramic tiles laid on cement-sand mortar or polypropylene film.
Out of concrete ringAnother option is the device pool with a frame, assembled from wooden pallets - pallets, serving for loading and transporting various goods. The configuration of such a pool depends on the area allocated for its site.
The number of pallets needed for the manufacture of the pool is four or more. And he himself can have a plan view from a simple square to more complex polygons with even and odd numbers of sides. On a prepared base, it is better if it is a flat concrete platform, the required polygon is assembled from pallet-pallets, and then tied in 3 or 4 levels with plastic tapes that perform the same function as metal hoops in a wooden barrel.
The bottom and walls of the resulting pool are lined with polypropylene film. Such pool turns out folding. It can be easily decomposed into components that can be removed in a closed room for the winter, transported to another section, etc.
This option can be done by hand
Sometimes there are recommendations - to fold the walls of the pool from old plastic bottles. This advice seems to be very doubtful for sanitary and hygienic reasons, since the right amount of this “material”, which is required even for a small pool, can only be collected at the nearest landfill.return to menu ↑
These pools are usually made in two ways.For an artificial reservoir, a ready-made bowl of cast propylene of the required depth and size in the plan, manufactured in the factory, is bought. From the owner is required only to prepare a flat platform or pit (with a recessed version), and also to equip the surrounding area.
Finished cast propylene bowl
Bowls manufactured at the factory have limited dimensions to ensure their safe transportation. If the owner wants to go beyond these dimensions - the pool can be independently welded from sheet polypropylene. At the same time, for the stability of the filled pool from the breaking loads of the water column, it is possible to use both the frame system and the soil walls of the open pit. Sheets of propylene are cut out in accordance with the configuration of the pool and are welded together with the help of a building hair dryer.
The advantages of polypropylene pools are that this material:
- possesses dense impermeable to water structure;
- resistant to aggressive atmospheric influences, including temperature extremes;
- neutral to the effects of solar ultraviolet radiation, not subject to fading and loss of the original color;
You can cook yourself from sheet polypropylene
- is environmentally friendly and harmless to humans, does not release into the water any harmful chemical compounds that can cause allergies or poisoning;
- has low heat transfer, allowing for a long time to keep the water warmed up, without exchanging temperature with the surrounding space;
- the flexibility and elasticity of polypropylene allows to form from it bowls of various configurations and shapes, including those with rounded edges and transitions of the walls in the bottom;
- it is well welded with the help of a construction hair dryer ensuring reliable sealing.
Out of concrete
Despite the relatively high cost and complexity in the construction, artificial reservoirs of monolithic reinforced concrete are most effective for long-term use. Pools of this type can be used for decades, requiring only minimal redecoration and in rare cases, the replacement of decorative trim.Ceramic tile, usually painted in different colors, which can be laid in the form of patterns or geometric shapes, usually acts as a cladding. Also, with the help of tiles in the pool, one can distinguish special zones whose borders are clearly visible both on the surface and under water.
Concrete pools are usually arranged buried in the ground type.
At the first stage, after the preparation and planning of the site, as well as the breakdown of the axes of the site, they begin to open the pit using manual labor or special earth-moving machines.The bottom of the pit is also subject to leveling and planning. For this purpose, ordinary quartz sand is used. On top of the sand cushion is laid roll waterproofing and pour hot bitumen. Next, concrete slab, reinforcing it with a grid of metal rods. The brand of concrete must be not lower than M300 ... M450 in the old marking or from V22.5 to B35 in the new classification.
After 10 ... 14 days on the bottom install vertical formwork and proceed to the concreting of the walls of the bowl. The thickness of the walls of the basin, embedded in the ground at 1.5 m can be from 25 to 30 cm. Reinforcing the walls is better with a vertical grid, installed closer to the edge facing the pit. This is due to the fact that the lateral stresses from the water pressure act on the vertical parts of the artificial reservoir, and the working armature should be located on the side opposite to the applied force.
This type can be used for decades.
After concreting the walls and setting the concrete, internal waterproofing of the resulting bowl is performed. For this purpose, rolled materials, reinforced with fiberglass, rolling them with an overlap along the bottom and wrapping them on the walls. Molten bitumen or special cold-cured mastics are used as glue.
Another method is the application of a special thick composition based on artificial rubber in several layers. After polymerization, it turns into a seamless, durable rubber-like insert, up to 5 mm thick. When concreting it is necessary not to forget to install round foam inserts with diameters corresponding to the diameter of pipes in the places where engineering services are supplied.Do not allow breaks in the concreting of the walls for more than 5 hours. In this case, the concrete will turn out to be layered with hairline cracks, which will violate the waterproof properties and structural integrity of the pool.
The formwork can be inventory - plastic, metal, from special formwork plywood, or self-made - from wooden boards, knocked down with their own hands.
As a formwork material to save, you can use unedged board-croaker.
Concrete pools are usually arranged recessed into the ground.
Difficult elements of reinforcement - frameworks, grids are made by knitting, when separate parts are tied together by soft knitting wire.Electric arc and acetylene welding is strongly not recommended, as the effect of high temperature reduces the tensile strength of reinforcing bars and weakens the carrying capacity of reinforced concrete structures.
You can prepare the concrete yourself with the help of a concrete mixer installed directly on the summer cottage. But in order to prevent accidental errors with the proportions of the composite ingredients, it is better to use purchased concrete delivered by special mixer cars. An additional bonus will be that the seller or supplier will bear all responsibility for poor quality concrete (if this happens).
Small option ideal for a country house
После демонтажа и разборки опалубки между бетоном и грунтовой стенкой котлована образуются пустоты, которые называют - обратные пазухи. До уровня поверхности земли они послойно засыпаются песком, поливаются водой и трамбуются. Further along the perimeter of the pool walls, a concrete blind area is arranged for a width of at least 0.5 m.
In order to avoid accidental injuries, it is faced with ceramic tiles with anti-slip coating.
In the process of final finishing and lining of the pool with ceramic tiles, it is better to use a special fine-mesh mesh, fiberglass-reinforced mesh. To increase the water resistance of the cladding, the interlayer joints should be cut and rubbed with silicone mastic.
You can prepare the concrete yourself using a concrete mixerreturn to menu ↑
From cinder block
Slag stone was often used in the restoration and construction of buildings in the 50s of the 20th century. Then it was completely replaced with a more widespread silicate (white) brick. Currently, this material has received a rebirth.
Slag stone is now most often used for the construction of secondary buildings - garages, warehouses, summer kitchens, fences. Artificial slag concrete stones are sometimes better than bricks for such reasons:
- one cinder block, because of its increased size, immediately replaces several bricks, therefore, laying of it is simpler than brick;
- extensive internal voids of the cinder block improve its heat-shielding properties;
- developed technologies for the manufacture of cinder block.
The experience of using cinder block for the device pools in the country showed itself from the positive side. The strength of the walls lined with this material was sufficient to withstand the lateral pressure of the poured water.It should be noted that the masonry should be made not on the cement-lime mortar, traditionally used for brick and masonry, but on the cement-sand mortar. For better adhesion (gluing) of the solution to the cinder blocks, plasticizer additives should be introduced into the solution. These can be polyvinyl acetate emulsion (PVA), acrylic or styrene latexes.
Work on the preparation, excavation, as well as the device of the horizontal plate - the bottom is carried out in the same way as it is prepared for a reinforced concrete monolithic basin. The walls to the desired height are laid out half the thickness of the cinder block, which is about 20 cm. Horizontal seams should be reinforced with a grid of rods with a diameter of 6 mm.
This building will definitely please your children.
Backfilling of the back sinuses should be done with a mixture of sand and rubble with very thorough tamping.
If there are voids in them, one or several cinder blocks under the pressure of water can be extruded from the vertical plane.Leaked moisture gets under the bottom and will cause uneven subsidence of the soil base of the concrete slab with the formation of fractures and cracks in it. Such a pool is likely to be unsuitable for repair and will be subject to disassembly and alteration.
After the erection of the walls of the cinder block, the inner surface of the formed bowl requires waterproofing and final finishing. Before using roll waterproofing, it is recommended to use deep-penetration impregnation for additional strengthening and protection of cinder blocks and seams.
For the manufacture of pools and other block materials are used, such as bricks, concrete blocks, rubble and sawn natural stone. The laying of such materials practically does not differ from the laying of cinder blocks.When building such artificial reservoirs, it is not recommended to use silicate (white) brick, as well as blocks or panels with gypsum binder. This is due to the fact that they have low resistance to weathering, especially in the wet or water-saturated state.
When operating an artificial reservoir of cinder block, you need to carefully monitor the technical condition of its construction. If cracks appear, immediately take measures to eliminate them by deep jointing and filling them with silicone mastic. Sometimes cracks can be masked as tile seams, so inspections and repairs should be carried out regularly and very carefully. Then the pool will be suitable for use for many years. That will bring a lot of joy to the cottage owner and his family members.
Pool bowls made of plastic, as an independent structure, are used only in finished form, manufactured in conditions of factory production. They are installed in the same way as from polypropylene directly on the ground or in a state recessed into the ground.
When making a composite plastic bowl with their own hands, it is most often used as an interior finish for concrete or stone pools..
Composite plastic is a few layers of fiberglass (from 3 or more), impregnated with polymer resins - epoxy, polyester, acrylic. After polymerization, a very durable, weather-resistant material is obtained, a material that is easily processed — sawn, drilled, polished, painted in a numerous range of colors.
Plastic pool bowls
Of this material often made boats, parts of car bodies, airframes, covers of various power machines. For the manufacture of the inner insert of the pool bowl of composite plastic, you should stock up with fiberglass and polymer resins in the right amount.
Fiberglass apply the most thin. The choice of resin remains with the owner of the pool, but it should be noted that the most used component for the manufacture of composite plastic with his own hands is epoxy resin.
If plasticizers and other useful additives are added to the resin together with the hardener, this mixture is called an epoxy compound.The peculiarity of working with epoxy resin is that it needs to be prepared in small portions in small dishes. Otherwise, an unregulated process of rapid curing with strong heating, as well as the release of harmful fumes for humans, may occur. After setting the epoxy resin (transition from liquid to solid state), the resulting material becomes completely safe and chemically neutral. For example, epoxy resin has been used for several decades to protect the internal surfaces of containers used for storing and transporting liquid food products and beverages. And also in the central drinking water treatment systems.
Before working with resin and fiberglass, the foundation should be carefully ironed, removing all the concavities and strongly protruding parts. If this is not done, the plastic outside will repeat all the defects along with the defects of the underlying surface.Liquid resin is applied to the surface of the pool basin, then glass fiber is applied, smoothing it, just as wallpaper is glued. Then the next layer of resin is applied, continuing until the wall thickness reaches 5 mm. After polymerization, the resulting fiberglass is ground and painted. Return to the menu ↑